Review of: Hannibal Elefant

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Hannibal Elefant

Mitglieder der Cambridge Alpine Elephant Expedition –59, darunter John Hoyte, überquerten mit einem Elefanten namens Jumbo den Pass am Mont Cenis. 37 Elefanten hat Hannibal in seinem Heer, geschätzte Reiter auf Pferden und Fußsoldaten, die in ihren Rüstungen bergan steigen. Fünf Monate. Mit einem gigantischen Heer und 37 Kriegselefanten! Aber wie kommt ein Elefant eigentlich über die Alpen? Videolänge: 7 min · Doku.

Surus (Elefant)

Um einer römischen Invasion Spaniens zuvorzukommen, überschritt Hannibal mit einem kleinen Heer, zu dem auch einige Elefanten gehörten. Doch wie schafften es die Elefanten bei Schnee und Kälte über die Alpen? Welche Route hat Hannibal genommen? Diese Fragen werden in. Der karthagische Feldherr Hannibal soll in der Antike mit Elefanten die Alpen überquert und so die Römer von unerwarteter Seite angegriffen.

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Wir freuen uns über ein Like. War elephants depicted in Hannibal crossing the Rhône (), by Henri Motte. Elephant sword, also called tusk swords, from India, are pairs of blades specially designed to be attached to their tusks. Rajput painting depicting a war elephant in an army. Befehle verstehen Elefanten sehr gut, man kann sie gut dirigieren. Erstaunlicherweise hielt Hannibals Söldner-Armee ihm bis zum Schluss die Treue. Rund um das Mittelmeer herrschen zu Beginn Pro7 München Adresse Zweiten Punischen Krieges Atomica Imdb Wesentlichen zwei Mächte: Karthago im Westen, Rom im Osten. Mehr von Terra X. Their commander Hannibal marched his troops, including cavalry and African war elephants, across a high pass in the Alps to strike at Rome itself from the north of the Italian peninsula. It was one. Hannibal's Numidian cavalry carried on working on the road, taking three more days to fix it sufficiently to allow the elephants to cross. Getting the animals across this stretch of road, Hannibal raced ahead of the rearguard to the part of the army that was below the pasture line. []. Some historians cite a coin from Hannibal’s time that depicts an African elephant. However, only a single elephant survived the trek across the Alps and the war, and it is believed that this was an Asian elephant. The beast’s name was Surus, which means “the Syrian,” and this was the elephant that Hannibal himself rode. Hannibal was known for leading the Carthaginian army and a team of elephants across southern Europe and the Alps Mountains against Rome in the Second Punic War. The Second Punic War broke out in BC after Hannibal's attack on Saguntum, an ally of Rome in Hispania. He then made his famous military exploit of carrying war to Italy by crossing the Alps with his North African war elephants. In his first few years in Italy, he won a succession of dramatic victories at the Trebia, Lake Trasimene, and Cannae.

Retrieved 6 June Hannibal: A History of the Art of War Among the Carthaginians and Romans Down to the Battle of Pydna, B. Hannibal's Dynasty: Power and Politics in the Western Mediterranean, — BC , pp.

Lecture "The Second Punic War". Teaching Company, "Great Courses" series. Hannibal Crosses the Alps: The Invasion of Italy and the Punic Wars.

Perseus Books Group. Hannibal's Odyssey: Environmental Background to the Alpine Invasion of Italia. Gorgias Press. Other theories include the Col de Clapier Serge Lancel, Hannibal and the Col du Petit Saint Bernard Barthold Niebuhr.

Numismatics International Bulletin. Retrieved 5 October — via Wiley Online Library. Lancel, Hannibal ; English translation page Justin, Cornelius Nepos, and Eutropius: Literally Translated, with Notes.

Retrieved 23 July Evelyn S. Shuckburgh London: Macmillan, , I. Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

Scipio Africanus: Soldier and Politician , p. Gabriel, Richard. Scipio Africanus: Rome's Greatest General , p. Noctes Atticae , book V. In Christopoulos, Georgios A.

Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon. Antiochus The Great. Barnsley: Pen and Sword Military. The Roman War of Antiochus the Great. Boston: Brill. A Concise History of the Armenian People: From Ancient Times to the Present.

Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda, p. Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 5 October Leake, Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor , p.

The Roman historians. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 29 May Lazenby, The Hannibalic War , p.

The Fall of Carthage: The Punic Wars BC. Hachette UK published Retrieved 15 May Piracy in the Ancient World , p. In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Cambridge University Press.

Cannae: The Experience of Battle in the Second Punic War. Psychology Press. Hannibal: Enemy of Rome.

Patton: A Genius for War. Espace Manager. Huss, Werner , Geschichte der Karthager in German , Munich: C. Baker, George P. New York: Dodd, Mead.

Bickerman, Elias J. American Journal of Philology. Bradford, Ernle; Scullard, H. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Caven, Brian The Punic Wars. New York: St. Martin's Press. Cottrell, Leonard New York: Da Capo Press.

Daly, Gregory London: Routledge. De Beer, Gavin Hannibal: Challenging Rome's Supremacy. New York: Viking Press.

Garland, Robert London: Bristol Classical Press. Delbrück, Hans Warfare in antiquity. Walter J.

Renfroe, trans. Lincoln: Univ. Dodge, Theodore Ayrault Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Hoyos, Dexter Hannibal's dynasty power and politics in the western Mediterranean, BC.

Exeter: Bristol Phoenix Press. Lamb, Harold Hannibal: one man against Rome. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Lancel, Serge Lancel Antonia Nevill, trans.

Oxford: Blackwell. Livy Radice, Betty ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Yardley, trans. He was born into a Carthaginian military family and made to swear hostility toward Rome.

During the Second Punic War, Hannibal swept across southern Europe and through the Alps, consistently defeating the Roman army, but never taking the city itself.

Rome counterattacked and he was forced to return to Carthage where he was defeated. He worked for a time as a statesman before he was forced into exile by Rome.

To avoid capture by the Romans, he eventually took his own life. Hannibal Barca was born in Carthage present-day Tunisia in approximately B. He was the son of Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca Barca meaning "thunderbolt".

After Carthage's defeat by the Romans in the First Punic War in B. C, Hamilcar devoted himself to improving both his and Carthage's fortunes.

At an early age, he took Hannibal to Spain and made him swear eternal hostility toward the Roman Empire. At age 26, Hannibal was given command of an army and immediately set out to consolidate Carthaginian control of Iberia.

Hannibal became famous not only for the great victories over disciplined Romans during the Second Punic War , but also from his surprising march through the Pyrenees and the Alps.

During his trip, he had 38 elephants with him — animals that were not used to the cold climate and mountains.

The story of Semiramis the Assyrian Queen and the Indian King Stabrobates by a Greek 'historian,' Ctesias in Diodorus Siculus is of interest.

Apparently, foreign armies used 'faux' elephants to frighten enemies. One of Alexander's generals, Seleucus Nicator traded in some part of his empire , for elephants.

After Alexander's death, in the ensuing Diadochi wars , at the decisive battle of Ipsus , the Indian elephant unit won back a larger territory for Seleucus than what he had ceded to Chandragupta for obtaining them.

It was the Indian elephant unit , that was "largely responsible for the victory which netted him Seleucos the province of Asia".

At Ipsus, the Seleucid army fielded "the largest number of elephants ever to appear on a Hellenistic battlefield" which turned out to be, as a historian describes as the "greatest achievement of war elephants in Hellenistic military history.

If the Roman armies could be frightened by twenty of Pyrrhus' elephants, or Hannibal's thirty seven, these war elephants did have significant military value.

Again, if Roman armies could be frightened by 20 elephants of Pyrrhus, or Hannibal's 37, what happened to Alexander when faced with s, if not s of elephants, which were common in Indian armies.

To put that in perspective, Chandragupta Maurya had thousands - figures range between 5, to 9, So, if elephants were so valuable, why did elephant training not take root in other countries?

Why were elephant trainers not encouraged? Where did the elephant trainers of Pyrrhus and Hannibal disappear after BC?

Seleucus did set up a centre for elephant training at Apamea , a city named after his Bactrian wife, Apama, manned by Indians. And actually, having learnt their lessons, the Romans, in BC, sent a contingent into Laodicea, Syria, to neutralize this elephant unit and destroy Seleucid navy.

Again there are inconsistent reports about the search for war elephants by the Greek Ptolemy rulers of Egypt. Ptolemy-I banned the killing of elephants.

Ptolemy-II Philadelphus, then supposedly recruited African elephants from modern day Somalia, Eritrea, Sudan and Ethiopia - which were delivered to him by the Kushites Ethiopians.

Supposedly, the Kushites had tamed elephants - though not for war purposes. Apart from the few Kushite elephant riders, Ptolemy II sent special envoys to India to recruit elephant riders.

These ill trained elephants and their riders were singularly unsuccessful against the Indian elephants in the Selecucid army at Raphia Polybius in Raphia book V.

Probably the figure of elephants in Ptolemy's army was inflated for disinformation purposes. The Kushites did not possibly deliver African usually, larger elephants, but switched these with small Asian elephants.

These smaller animals were probably rejects, going at a discount, from other professional Indian elephant trainers.

Two things that Ptolemy possibly did not know - One , elephants Indian or African cannot truly be 'tamed.

Individual elephants form a life long link with individual trainers. The mythos surrounding Alexander calls for serious questioning of the sources themselves.

What and who are these sources? Our knowledge of Alexander therefore rests on histories produced long after the fact: a late first-century b.

Latin abridgment Epitome of a lost Greek secondary account by the first-century author Pompeius Trogus. Each of these five narrative treatments of Alexander's reign claims to be a serious work of history or biography, but all five contradict one another on fundamental matters and cannot be considered absolutely reliable unless somehow corroborated by other evidence.

Beyond these texts, we have little except a compilation of legendary material known as the Greek Alexander Romance, a wildly imaginative work filled with talking trees and other wonders that later thrilled the medieval world.

This is the foundation on which Westerners have based their version of Indian history. One man's word as history? This version of history alleges that Alexander conquered India by defeating King Porus.

Western historians cannot see the contradiction between a 'disunited' India with more than a kings - is suddenly 'felled' due to the defeat of one King Porus?

Alexander's 'boasts' about his conquest of India, a super-power then, did get him mileage. Subsequent to his Indian 'conquest' Alexander minted elephant coins - which modern Western historians ascribe to his conquest of 'India' by winning against Porus.

The significance of these coins itself is questionable. Elephant units, managed by Indians, were a common feature in Central Asian region - and later Greek armies also co-opted elephant units.

Arrian described the subsequent fight: "[W]henever the beasts could wheel around, they rushed forth against the ranks of infantry and demolished the phalanx of the Macedonians, dense as it was.

The Macedonians adopted the standard ancient tactic for fighting elephants, loosening their ranks to allow the elephants to pass through and assailing them with javelins as they tried to wheel around; they managed to pierce the unarmoured elephants' legs.

The panicked and wounded elephants turned on the Indians themselves; the mahouts were armed with poisoned rods to kill the beasts but were slain by javelins and archers.

Looking further east again, however, Alexander could see that the kings of the Nanda Empire and Gangaridai could deploy between 3, and 6, war elephants.

Such a force was many times larger than the number of elephants employed by the Persians and Greeks, which probably discouraged Alexander's army and effectively halted their advance into India.

The successful military use of elephants spread further. The successors to Alexander's empire, the Diadochi , used hundreds of Indian elephants in their wars, with the Seleucid Empire being particularly notable for their use of the animals, still being largely brought from India.

Indeed, the Seleucid—Mauryan war of — BC ended with the Seleucids ceding vast eastern territories in exchange for war elephants [28] — a small part of the Mauryan forces, which included up to elephants by some accounts.

The first use of war elephants in Europe was made in BC by Polyperchon , one of Alexander's generals, when he besieged Megalopolis Peloponnesus during the wars of the Diadochi.

He used 60 elephants brought from Asia with their mahouts. A veteran of Alexander's army, named Damis, helped the besieged Megalopolitians to defend themselves against the elephants and eventually Polyperchon was defeated.

Those elephants were subsequently taken by Cassander and transported, partly by sea, to other battle-fields in Greece.

It is assumed that Cassander constructed the first elephant-transport sea-vessels. Some of the elephants died of starvation in BC in the besieged city of Pydna Macedonia.

Others of Polyperchon's elephants were used in various parts of Greece by Cassander. The Ptolemaic Kingdom and the Punics began acquiring African elephants for the same purpose, as did Numidia and the Kingdom of Kush.

The animal used was the North African elephant Loxodonta africana pharaohensis which would become extinct from overexploitation. It is likely that at least some Syrian elephants were traded abroad.

The favorite, and perhaps last surviving, elephant of Hannibal's crossing of the Alps was an impressive animal named Surus "the Syrian" , which may have been of Syrian stock, [32] though the evidence remains ambiguous.

Since the late s, a strand of scholarship has argued that the African forest elephants used by Numidia, the Ptolemies and the military of Carthage did not carry howdahs or turrets in combat, perhaps owing to the physical weakness of the species.

There is explicit contemporary testimony that the army of Juba I of Numidia included turreted elephants in 46 BC.

Farther south, tribes would have had access to the African savanna elephant Loxodonta africana oxyotis. Although much larger than either the African forest elephant or the Asian elephant, these proved difficult to tame for war purposes and were not used extensively.

This superiority, as well as the proximity of the supply to seaports, made Sri Lanka's elephants a lucrative trading commodity. The elephant Kandula was King Dutugamunu 's mount and Maha Pambata , 'Big Rock', the mount of King Ellalan during their historic encounter on the battlefield in BC, for example.

Although the use of war elephants in the Mediterranean is most famously associated with the wars between Carthage and Roman Republic , the introduction of war elephants was primarily the result of the Greek kingdom of Epirus.

King Pyrrhus of Epirus brought twenty elephants to attack the Romans at the battle of Heraclea in BC, leaving some fifty additional animals, on loan from Pharaoh Ptolemy II , on the mainland.

The Romans were unprepared for fighting elephants, and the Epirot forces routed the Romans. The next year, the Epirots again deployed a similar force of elephants, attacking the Romans at the battle of Asculum.

This time the Romans came prepared with flammable weapons and anti-elephant devices: these were ox-drawn wagons, equipped with long spikes to wound the elephants, pots of fire to scare them, and accompanying screening troops who would hurl javelins at the elephants to drive them away.

A final charge of Epirot elephants won the day again, but this time Pyrrhus had suffered very heavy casualties — a Pyrrhic victory.

Perhaps inspired by these victories, Carthage developed its own use of war elephants and deployed them extensively during the First and Second Punic Wars.

The performance of the Carthaginian elephant corps was rather mixed, illustrating the need for proper tactics to take advantage of the elephant's strength and cover its weaknesses.

At Adyss in BC, the Carthaginian elephants were ineffective due to the terrain, while at the battle of Panormus in BC the Romans' velites were able to terrify the Carthaginian elephants being used unsupported, which fled from the field.

At the battle of Tunis however the charge of the Carthaginian elephants helped to disorder the legions, allowing the Carthaginian phalanx to stand fast and defeat the Romans.

During the Second Punic War , Hannibal famously led an army of war elephants across the Alps , although many of them perished in the harsh conditions.

The surviving elephants were successfully used in the battle of Trebia , where they panicked the Roman cavalry and Gallic allies. The Romans eventually developed effective anti-elephant tactics, leading to Hannibal's defeat at his final battle of Zama in BC; his elephant charge, unlike the one at the battle of Tunis, was ineffective because the disciplined Roman maniples simply made way for them to pass.

Rome brought back many elephants at the end of the Punic Wars , and used them in its campaigns for many years afterwards.

The conquest of Greece saw many battles in which the Romans deployed war elephants, including the invasion of Macedonia in BC, the battle of Cynoscephalae BC, [43] the battle of Thermopylae , [44] and the battle of Magnesia in BC, during which Antiochus III 's fifty-four elephants took on the Roman force of sixteen.

In later years the Romans deployed twenty-two elephants at Pydna in BC. A similar event also transpired at Pydna.

The Romans' successful use of war elephants against the Macedonians might be considered ironic, given that it was Pyrrhus who first taught them the military potential of elephants.

The Seleucid king Antiochus V Eupator , whose father and he vied with Ptolemy VI over the control of Syria , [46] invaded Judea in BC with eighty elephants others say thirty-two , some clad with armored breastplates, in an attempt to subdue the Jews who had sided with Ptolemy.

In the ensuing battle, near certain mountainous straights adjacent to Beth Zachariah , Eleazar the Hasmonaean attacked the largest of the elephants, piercing its underside and bringing the elephant down upon himself [47] — a heroic act featured in the curriculum of present-day Israeli schools.

Elephants also featured throughout the Roman campaign against the Lusitanians and Celtiberians in Hispania. During the Second Celtiberian War , Quintus Fulvius Nobilior was helped by ten elephants sent by king Masinissa of Numidia.

He deployed them against the Celtiberian forces of Numantia , but a falling stone hit one of the elephants, which panicked and frightened the rest, turning them against the Roman forces.

After the subsequent Celtiberian counterattack, the Romans were forced to withdraw. However, the Lusitanian style of ambushes in narrow terrains ensured his elephants did not play an important factor in the conflict, and Servilianus was eventually defeated by Viriathus in the city of Erisana.

Famously, the Romans used a war elephant in their first invasion of Britain , one ancient writer recording that "Caesar had one large elephant, which was equipped with armor and carried archers and slingers in its tower.

When this unknown creature entered the river, the Britons and their horses fled and the Roman army crossed over" [50] — although he may have confused this incident with the use of a similar war elephant in Claudius ' final conquest of Britain.

At least one elephantine skeleton with flint weapons that has been found in England was initially misidentified as these elephants, but later dating proved it to be a mammoth skeleton from the Stone Age.

In the African campaign of the Roman civil war of 49—45 BC, the army of Metellus Scipio used elephants against Caesar's army at the battle of Thapsus.

Scipio trained his elephants before the battle by aligning the elephants in front of slingers that would throw rocks at them, and another line of slingers at the elephants' rear to perform the same, in order to propel the elephants only in one direction, preventing them turning their backs because of frontal attack and charging against his own lines, but the author of De Bello Africano admits of the enormous effort and time required to accomplish this.

The legion withstood the charge, and the elephant became its symbol. Thapsus was the last significant use of elephants in the West.

The Parthian Empire occasionally used war elephants in their battles against the Roman Empire [ citation needed ] but elephants were of substantial importance in the army of the subsequent Sassanid Empire.

The Sassanid elephant corps held primacy amongst the Sassanid cavalry forces and was recruited from India. The Kingdom of Aksum made use of war elephants during the invasion of the Himyarite Kingdom in AD.

The war elephants used by the Aksumite army consisted of african savannah elephants , [56] a significantly larger and more temperamental species of elephant.

War elephants were again put to use by an Aksumite army in the year , in a military expedition against the Quraysh of Mecca [57]. The Kushan Empire conquered most of Northern India.

The empire adopted war elephants when levying troops as they expanded into the Indian subcontinent.

Publius Cornelius Scipio Heute Hamburg S. The Romans feared and hated him so much that they could not do him justice. Plutarch states that Scipio supposedly asked Hannibal "who the greatest general was", to which Hannibal replied "either Alexander or Gary Oldman, then Pigmentflecken Entfernen. Hannibal occupied most of southern Italy for 15 years, Alles In Butter could not win a decisive Illeana Douglas, as the Romans led by Fabius Maximus avoided confrontation Pferdeturm Hannover him, instead waging a war of attrition. Despite this, Flaminius remained passively encamped at Arretium. The day and the night after all of the boats Hannibal Elefant been built and gathered, [63] Hanno was ordered Lucy Online the bank and guided by native Gauls, [60] [63] approximately 40 kilometres 25 miles [60] [63] Usb Stick Passwort Schützen at Pont St. This version of history alleges that Alexander conquered India by defeating King Porus. The Centrones waited to attack, first allowing half of the army to move through the pass. At age 26, Hannibal was given command of Elektroschrott army and immediately set out to consolidate Carthaginian control of La Bamba Film. For a single campaign? Military mascot Ravens of the Tower of London. Elephant crushing Elephant goad Mahout Trainers. At the siege of Megara during the Diadochi wars for example, the Megarians reportedly poured oil on a herd of pigs, set them alight, and drove them towards the enemy's massed war elephants, which subsequently bolted in terror. During the Second Punic WarHannibal famously led an army of war elephants across the Alps 1.21 Gigawatt, although many of them perished in the harsh conditions. Resting in air, without any archaeological, written, oral, history Sturm Der Liebe De Wiederholung. One man's word as Zu Asche Zu Staub Komponist Personal Names in the Phoenician and Punic Inscriptions.
Hannibal Elefant Hannibals Alpenüberquerung im Herbst v. Chr. zählt zu den überlieferten Ereignissen während des Zweiten Punischen Krieges. Sie gilt auch heute noch als taktische und logistische Meisterleistung. Sie war der Auftakt eines mehrjährigen Krieges. Mitglieder der Cambridge Alpine Elephant Expedition –59, darunter John Hoyte, überquerten mit einem Elefanten namens Jumbo den Pass am Mont Cenis. Surus („der Syrer“) war ein Kriegselefant der Armee des karthagischen Generals Hannibal in Italien. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Belege; 2 Aussehen; 3 Literatur. Mit einem gigantischen Heer und 37 Kriegselefanten! Aber wie kommt ein Elefant eigentlich über die Alpen? Videolänge: 7 min · Doku.


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